Hi, I’m Jessica and welcome back to ChinesePod. Hi, I’m Josh 欢迎回到中文播客 Today we’ve got some more grammar for you, we’re going to be looking at how to use the action complete 了 particle in Chinese which is different from the “了” that we’ve looked at in the previous video which was the change of state “了”. 没错,我们今天不是要学 的这个”了” 我们今天要学的是 的这个”了” Now the most important takeaway from this lesson is that this is not an -ed or a simple past tense equivalent in English “了”. This “了” can be used in any verb tense and the most important thing is that it’s just signifying it’s an action complete. So either the action has been completed if you’re looking at it in a past tense, or the action will be completed for the future tense. 没错,我们开始吧 We’re going to start off by
looking at how we use this “了” So where do we place it in a sentence, maybe using a V-O compound. “了”要放在动词的后面,比如说 Okay so So that’s the verb to knock on a door, right? So we would put it after the verb, correct?
But before the object. 没错,所以我们会说 Okay, so So knocking + 了 + on the door. I knocked on the door. So maybe we can have an example
sentence with this V-O compound? 比如说你拜访你的朋友 Okay, you’re going to see your friend. 朋友不在家 Your friend isn’t home, right, so you can say… 你可以说 Okay so I knocked, action is complete, I already knocked. No one was home. 没错 Where is your friend? He just remembered she yesterday, so again we’re looking at the past tense here. 去了 – she already left, she went to South Korea. 对,她去了韩国 Alright so, friend’s not here, I can ask you well 你在做什么? What are you doing now, right? Okay, so I just finished eating. 吃了饭 Just finished eating, now I plan on
going to the library, to visit the library. 没错 So those are some examples of how
we use “了” for past tense verbs. So now that we’ve look at how to use this action complete 了 for actions to have been finished in the past we’re going to look at how to use it for the future. So we’re going to start with actions that will be completed, right? So I can ask you maybe Josh,
“what do you plan to do tomorrow?” 您明天打算做什么? 你可能问我下班之后,对吧? 所以我可以说 Okay so when I’m finished working. 我下了班 So when I’m done work. Again comes after the verb. 下了班 Then I plan to go watch a concert. Great, “I’m going to watch a concert”. So in English we wouldn’t really use this verb “watch”, but in Chinese for a concert, you would use “watch”? 你可以说 或是 Ah right, so you can say
“to watch a concert” or “to listen to a concert”. 没错 Okay, great. So that’s one example for how we use it for the future, why don’t we start with an example for something that’s going on right now? So maybe I call you and I’m like Josh你在哪里? Where are you? 我们晚上要一起吃晚餐 所以我可以说 Okay so I’m at the “面包店”, which is the bread shop or the bakery Alright I’m at the bakery, I’m going to buy bread and then I’ll return home. 所以是”买了面包就回家” 买了- so it comes after the verb, before the object. Great, something I know you like to do is go to the gym. So maybe I can ask you “Josh, this Sunday, what time do you plan to go to the gym?” How would we say that? 你可以说 The gym, okay. And you can answer… 您可能早饭之后才要去健身房 所以你可以说… Okay so I – 我吃了, I’m going to eat 早餐. I’ll eat breakfast first. Once that action is completed, even though we’re talking about it in the future, right. On Sunday, once I finish breakfast, I plan or I’m going to go off. 所以是 Yeah, “I’ll be going to the gym”. Get my work out on. Next, we’re going to look at how to expand this pattern a little bit more. So for example if you want to learn how to be more specific or give more detail using the action complete 了 you’re going to learn how to add measure words, numbers, and objects into the sentence and where the “了” would go. 没错 So for example, Josh I know you really like to drink coffee. 对不对? 是啊 Okay, so he really likes to drink coffee. So maybe I can ask you “yesterday, how many cups of coffee did you drink?” Using an interrogative here, right? So how would I say that? 所以我们可以说… 但是你刚刚问我 Okay so with the question “喝了”, the “了” is still coming directly after the verb “几杯咖啡”. We’re saying “how many cups of coffee?” Okay. 所以我可以说 Okay so yesterday he drank five cups of coffee So here the structure is… 喝了 – you’re still saying “了” after the verb and then following that 了 you’re using 五杯, you’re using the number, the measure word, then finally the object. 没错 好 So do you always need to use the object here though, or could it be kind of implied in context? 不一定,你可以说… Okay, you can just say “I drank five cups”. Great. Now that I know you drank a lot of coffee, maybe my follow up question here could be… “How did you sleep last night”, right? So yesterday how many hours did you sleep? 所以你问我… Okay 睡了 – so you’re using the verb “slept”. how many hours? 我可以说… Okay, so you can say “I slept eight hours of sleep” and you’re putting the object here,
but you don’t need it, correct? 没错,你可以说… And I think it’s more common to drop the object, especially with the verb “睡觉”. 对 It’s implied. Great. I’m very jealous of you, because I know myself personally if I drink a lot of coffee, I’m not sleeping at all. So how would I say even just a pot of tea? If I have a pot of tea, I won’t sleep more than maybe four hours. 所以 对吧? Yeah. Pot of tea. 你昨天喝了一壶茶 Only slept four hours. So there’s some examples of how to use this action complete “了” with measure words and numbers following it. 我们来看看最后一个句子 Okay, so yesterday he’s asking me…你做了什么? You did what, what did I do? I went shopping. I could say… 我昨天去了逛街 不对 是 Okay so here we have two verbs in the sentence, right? “To go shopping”. it was yesterday, so we’re looking at it in the past. We’re going to put that “了” not after the first one, not after the “去”, but really after the second most important verb in the sentence, right? “to go shopping”. That action has been completed, so we say 对,所以是 然后呢? After, what did I do? I can say… 所以你 So there’s that “了” again. 那”喝一杯”是什么意思? What does that mean? So “喝一杯” in Chinese implies
it was an alcoholic drink. Right, just have a glass, have a drink. 是啊 那晚点出去喝一杯吧? Let’s do it. Now let’s have a quick recap of all the different ways that we’ve looked at how to use this action complete “了” in today’s lesson. So maybe we can start with looking at how to use the action complete “了” with a situation that has already finished right a bit in the past. I can ask you “Josh, what did you do today?” Okay, so what did we do today? 做了什么? 所以我们可以说… Okay so today we learned
some new grammar, very true. And i can ask you in order to elaborate more on the one with measure words and more detail… how many grammar structures did we learn? 我们可以说 Great, so we learned two new
grammar structures today. And finally looking at how to use that action complete “了” that hasn’t actually finished yet but it will be completed more in the future, I can ask you… after this lesson, what do you plan on doing? 我可以说 After this, he plans on going out and having some fun. 如果有什么问题,欢迎在下面给我们留言 并告诉我们你昨天做了什么 Yeah, we’d love to hear from you. 我是Josh
我是Jessica 下次见
Bye-bye!