The IELTS Speaking Test can have questions
about questions about pollution and traffic. These are asked because they allow you to
express an opinion to show how aware you are of these problems. And traffic and pollution are a problem for
all countries so the over 100 countries where people take the IELTS it’s a question that
people would have thought about in their native language and should be able to talk about
in English. So I want to give you specific words and the
ideas behind talking about them so you’ll be ready for these kind of common questions
on the IELTS Speaking Test. One is about pollution. There can be air pollution, there can be water
pollution inside a country or there can be marine pollution – marine pollution refers
to the sea or the ocean where there is plastic or sometimes oil or garbage is discharged
from a ship. So those are the general thoughts and categories
about that. About air pollution, you can say it caused
by a combination of factories creating smoke or pollutants that are discharged or have
gone into the atmosphere or it can be from cars – the cars that burn gasoline or petrol
– they cause this kind of pollution. When there is moisture in the air and that
combines with dirt or soot and pollution, it’s called smog, it’s a combination of “smoke”
from the factory or the car burning gasoline or petrol cause this kind of pollution. When there is moisture in the air and that
combines with this dirt or soot – the pollution – it’s called “smog” – it is a combination
of “smoke from the factory or the car burning petroleum or gasoline and “fog” and “fog”
is when there are lots of particles of water in the air so “smog” is a great word or “It’s
been smoggy in my city” or “It gets smoggy in my city at some times of year”. Another great phrase is “climate change” – “climate
change” means the temperature of the Earth. So the scientists have been measuring how
hot it is on average around the world and the scientific agreement is that it’s getting
hotter. The implication is if things get hotter the
polar ice caps in the North Pole and the South Pole can melt and raise the overall water
level in the world and that can hurt cities that are on the water; it can hurt the habitat
of the animals that live in the North Pole and the South Pole. The polar bears and the penguins and the whales
and other types of marine life. And another thing is loss of habitats . A
habitat is where particular animals live and the polar bear is well suited to living up
in the polar region because the polar bear has a very thick coat of hair so that’s the
polar bear’s habitat where other animals are found down by the equator they don’t have
as much hair because it’s too hot. So you can talk about this loss of habitats. Also the changes in pollution and the changes
in temperature on the Earth can lead to a loss of “biodiversity” and “biodiversity”
means that many different species of insects and birds and other animals all of which are
part of a system in the ecology of the world. If we lose those and they don’t come back
it upsets the balance of the Earth – it’s true! “Deforestation” can happen when too many trees
are cut down to make paper or to use the wood for constructing building or houses. The problem with deforestation is there is
less oxygen produced by trees and so that injures the environment. That may be a great one for you to use. In factories you can have “industrial runoff”. Industry refers to the factories or where
things are made and “runoff” means when a bio-product of the manufacturing process,
some kinds of chemicals runs off when it leaves the factory and goes into a water source nearby
like a river and pollutes it so we can’t drink from the river or fish die or industrial run
off can mean those pollutants get into the water table under the earth from which we
get our drinking water. That’s a great one to use. “Over population” is another important concept
you can talk about. “Over population” means when there are too
many people for the world to sustain given there is a certain number of areas where crops
can be grown easily and other places they can’t and there is a certain amount of water
and if you triple or quadruple the population there’s not enough every body. So over population can be one you can discuss. All of these are sophisticated ideas and words
but if you can use those and in the questions about traffic and pollution and how has the
world changed, you can get a very high IELTS Speaking Test score because it will show sophisticated
reasoning and thinking and awareness of these particular words and concepts. Please follow these videos. you can learn
a lot and also I’ve written a book all about the IELTS Speaking Test with tips and techniques
on how to raise your score, what to say and what not to say and how to say it. You can see a link to the book below in the
description. Study hard, be prepared and tell a great story.