[ ♪♪♪ ] [ ♪♪♪ ] [ ♪♪♪ ] [ APPLAUSE ].>>>LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, THANK YOU FOR WATCHING. WELCOME TO WATCH THIS SPACE. I’M THE HAS AN ADMINISTRATOR JIM BRIDENSTINE. THE VIDEO YOU JUST WATCHED WAS A VIDEO OF SOME OF AMERICA’S FINEST AND, IN FACT, SOME OF CANADA’S FINEST. THESE ARE OUR NEW GENERATION OF ASTRONAUTS. WE CALL THEM ASTRONAUT CANDIDATES. WE HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO MEET THEM TODAY. N.A.S.A. IS ON THE BRINK OF DOING SOME AMAZING THINGS. WE ARE FIRST THE FIRST TIME SINCE 2017 ON THE PRECIPICE OF LAUNCHING AMERICAN ASTRONAUTS. THIS HASN’T BEEN TONNE SINCE THE RETIREMENT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE. WE’RE GOING TO DO THAT NEXT YEAR. THESE ASTRONAUTS ARE GOING TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ON CREW. THEY’RE NOT PURCHASING THESE ROCKETS IN THE PAST; N.A.S.A. IS BUYING A SERVICE FROM OUR COMMERCIAL CREW PROVIDERS. IN THIS CASE SPACEX AND BOWING AND THE VEHICLE WILL BE LAUNCHING ON THE AMERICAN ROCKET. THIS IS AN EXCITING TIME. THE TIME BEING WE CAN DRIVE DOWN COSTS AND INCREASE ACCESS WHERE N.A.S.A. IS ONE CUSTOMER OF MANY CUSTOMERS WITH PROVIDERS THAT ARE COMPETING ON COST AND INNOVATION IN LOWER EARTH ORBIT. THIS IS EXCITING FOR THE U.S.A., IT IS EXCITING FOR N.A.S.A. AND THE BIG REASON WHY WE’RE DOING THIS WITH COMMERCIAL CREW BECAUSE IF WE CAN DRIVE DOWN COSTS AND COMMERCIALISE LOWER EARTH ORBIT, WE CAN GO FURTHER. THE PRESIDENT HAS PUT OUT SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE 1 AND SAYING WE’RE GOING BACK TO THE MOON. WE’RE GOING BACK TO THE MOON WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS AND COMMERCIAL PARTNERS. WE’RE GOING UTILISE THE RESOURCES OF THE MOON AND THIS TIME WHEN WE GO TO THE MOON IT IS GOING TO BE SUSTAINABLE; IN OTHER WORDS, WE’RE GOING TO STAY. WE’RE GOING TO STAY WITH ROBOTS AND LANDERS AND ROVERS AND HUMANS GOING BACK AND FORTH FROM THE SURFACE OF THE MOON WHICH WE DAUL GATEWAY WHICH IS IN THE MOON AROUND DEEP SPACE. THERE’S EXCITING THINGS HAPPENING AT N.A.S.A. THE PEOPLE THAT ARE GOING TO BE ON THESE MISSIONS, THE ONES THAT WILL FLY THEM, THAT NEXT GENERATION OF NEIL ARMSTRONG AZ AND BUZZ ALDRONS, THEY’RE GOING TO BE HERE. LET’S GET STARTED. [ APPLAUSE ]S AZ AND BUZZ ALDRONS, THEY’RE GOING TO BE HERE. LET’S GET STARTED. [ APPLAUSE ]AZ AND BUZZ ALDRONS, THEY’RE GOING TO BE HERE. LET’S GET STARTED. [ APPLAUSE ] AND BUZZ ALDRONS, THEY’RE GOING TO BE HERE. LET’S GET STARTED. [ APPLAUSE ] [ APPLAUSE ] [ APPLAUSE ].>>>IN FACT AN A LOT OF PEOPLE AROUND THE COUNTRY ARE INTERESTED IN WHO YOU ARE AND WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO DO ON BEHALF OF THE U.S.A. AND CANADA AND ON BEHALF OF THE WORLD. THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE AND PARTICIPATING IN THIS, THANK YOU FOR THIS AUDIENCE LOVE ON YOU FOR A FEW MINUTES THERE. A LOT OF ENTHUSIASM. PLEASE HAVE YOUR SEATS. WE WILL START WITH KAYLA AND GO DOWN THE ROAD. IF EACH OF YOU WOULD TAKE A FEW MOMENTS, TELL US WHAT YOUR NAME IS, WHERE YOU’RE FROM AND A LITTLE BIT ABOUT YOUR BACKGROUND, WHERE YOU COME FROM AND WHAT GOT YOU TO THE POINT WHERE YOU’RE READY TO BE AN ASTRONAUT.>>THANKS FOR HAVING US HERE. IT IS AN ONHOUR TO BE HERE. MY BACKGROUND IS IN NAVY. IN THE CLASS OF 2010 AND SERVED ON SUBMARINES BEFORE COMING TO N.A.S.A. I’M FROM WASHINGTON STATE.>>>SINCE I’VE BEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR I’VE HAD A LOT OF DEBRIEFS FROM OUR ASTRONAUTS WHO LIVE AND WORK ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. I CAN TELL BASED ON THOSE THAT YOUR EXPERIENCE ON SUBMARINES, LIVING IN CLOSE QUARTERS WITH OTHER PEOPLE IS VALUABLE GOING FORWARD.>>I’M ZINA. I WENT TO CHAPEL HILL AND THEN PEN STATE. I WAS A MICRO BIOLOGIST STUDYING CAVES IN THE DEEP SEA.>>>THANK YOU.>>I’M ROGER AND I GREW UP IN IOWA AND WAS AN AIR FORCE TEST PILOT. I GO BY GRAND YEAH.>>>THAT’S YOUR CALL SIGN?>>YES.>>>MATTHEW. I GREW UP IN COLORADA. I WENT FOR UNIVERSITY FOR ENGINEERING. I WAS AN NAVAL TEST PILOT.>>I’M BOB. I GREW UP IN PENNSYLVANIA, WENT TO BOSTON UNIVERSITY AND THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA A. I WAS A TEST PILOT AND WORKED AT N.A.S.A. FOR A RESEARCH PILOT AS A FEW YEARS BEFORE SELECTED FOR THIS COLLAR.>>I’M WOODY FROM PENNSYLVANIA. I WENT TO MI T AND SPENT TIME BEOING BEFORE GETTING SELECTED.>>I’M JOHN. BORN AND RAISED IN L.A. I WAS AN OPERATOR AND WENT TO UNIVERSITY AND BECAME A MEDICAL DOCTOR BEFORE HERE.>>>WHEN YOU SAY SPECIAL WARFARE OPERATOR, MOST OF US WOULD KNOW THAT AS A NAVY SEAL; START?>>THAT’S CORRECT.>>I’M JOSHUA. I GREW UP ON A CATTLE FORM IN CANADA. I STUDIED MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND PRIOR TO COMING HERE I WAS AN AIR FORCE TEST PILOT.>>I’M JASMINE. I GREW UP IN BALD WIN NEW YORK ON LONG ISLAND. PRIOR TO COMING HERE I WAS A COVER PILOT AND TEST PILOT FOR THE U.S. MARINE CORPS.>>I’M LAUREL. I GREW UP IN EFFECTS AS AND WENT TO THE UNIVERSITY THE CAN DAYS. BEFORE THIS I WAS AN ENGINEER WHERE I WORKED ON RESEARCH SUBMARINES AND ROBOTS.>>FRONK FROM FLORIDA. I GRADUATED IN 1998 IN ARMY. PRIOR TO THIS I WAS A PILOT AND A PHYSICIAN WORKING WITH SPECIAL FORCES GROUP BEFORE SELECTED.>>I’M JENNY. I’M A CANADIAN ASTRONAUT. I STUDIED AT UNIVERSITY. I WAS WORKING AS AN ENGINEERING PRF PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY AT CAMBRIDGE AND I STUDIED FIRE.>>I’M JESSICA. I’M FROM COLORA DOSHGS ON. I STUDDED AT STAB FORWARD AND DID MARS GEOLOGY WORKING ON THE MARS ROVER.>>>IT HAS TO BE REALLY HARD, ESPECIALLY FROM PLANET EARTH.>>YES. THAT’S WHY I STOOD UP FOR THIS JOB.>>>WE’RE GOING TO TRY TO MAKE THAT EASIER FOR YOU.>>THAT SOUNDS GOOD.>>>JUST SO EVERYONE KNOWS THE RULES OF THE ROAD HERE, THIS IS LIVE ON THE N.A.S.A. CHANNEL. IT’S ALSO ON SOCIAL MEDIA. THERE ARE PEOPLE OUT THERE WHO MIGHT WANT TO IS A QUESTION OF ONE OF THESE — ASK A QUESTION OF ONE OF THESE FABULOUS N.A.S.A. CANDIDATES. YOU CAN USE HASHTAG ASK N.A.S.A. WE WILL GET YOU IN THE QUEUE. IF YOU’RE IN THE AUDIENCE HERE AND YOU HAVE A QUESTION, CERTAINLY THINK ABOUT WHAT THAT QUESTION MAY BE. WE HAVE FOLKS WITH MICROPHONES. LET’S BEGIN. I WILL START WITH THE FIRST QUESTION AND I’LL JUST START WITH YOU KAYLA, SINCE YOU’RE FRONT AND LEFT HERE, CLOSEST TO ME. YOU’RE IN THE DIRECT LINE OF FIRE. WHAT IS SOMETHING THAT HAS SURPRISED YOU ABOUT N.A.S.A. AND/OR AS TROE NOUGHT TRAINING? IMPRISONMENT I THINK WHAT HAS BEEN THE MOST IS HOW MUCH I’VE BEEN ENJOYING THE JET. I’VE HAD A REALLY GOOD TIME DOING IT AND I LEARNT A LOT FROM TRAINING IN THAT ENVIRONMENT.>>>IN THE T38, DOES EVERY ASTRONAUT BECOME A PILOT?>>NO. THE ASTRONAUT TO HAVE A BACKGROUND IN AVIATION, THEY DO IT CERTIFIED TO BE A PYTHAGORAS LOT IN A FRONT SEAT. THE REST LEARNING HOW TO FLY IN THE BACK SEAT. WE AUSE IT AS AN ANALOGUE FOR TRAINING AND ENVIRONMENT THAT IS RISKY, OPERATING REAL EQUIPMENT AND YOU HAVE TO LEARN HOW TO COMMUNICATE AND COOPERATE WITH THE TEAM MATE.>>>DID YOU FLY AT ALL COMMERCIALLY OR CIVILLY WHEN YOU WERE A SUBMARINE WARFARE OFFICER?>>NO. I WAS JUST FOCUSED ON LEARNING HOW TO OPERATE A NUCLEAR REACTOR AND DRIVE A BOAT, OPERATING UNDER THE SEA. THAT WASN’T REALLY MY AREA OF EXPERTISE, BUT I’VE HAD A LOT OF FUN SCRATCHING THE SURFACE OF THAT SO FAR.>>>THAT’S FANTASTIC. OPERATING A NUCLEAR REACTOR IS TOUGH. I’M SURE IT WILL SERB YOU WELL LIVING AND WORKING IN SPACE.>>ASTRONAUT I HOPE SO.>>>XENA?>>THERE ARE A LOT OF SURPRISING THINGS IN A GOOD ONE. ONE OF THE MOST SURPRISING IS HOW DIFFERENT EVERY DAY OF OUR TRAINING IS. YOU MIGHT BE IN A CLASS LEARNING ONE HOUR AND THE NEXT HOUR YOU’RE WALKING TO THE AREA PORT TO GET INTO A JET. IT IS COOL GETTING TO DO THAT ALONGSIDE CLASSMATES WHO COME FROM SUCH DIVERSION BACKGROUNDS.>>>ROGER.>>WHAT SURPRISES HE IS THE AMOUNT OF PEOPLE AND DEDICATION THAT SUPPORT ALL THE TRAINING, THINGS WE DO. WE HAD OUR FIRST RUN AT THE NBL AND THE NUMBER OF DIVERSS THAT INVOLVED, ALL THE PEOPLE SHOWING UP TO SUPPORT THAT, WHETHER IT’S SIMULATORS AND HAVING A WHOLE TEAM OF PEOPLE WATCHING FOR A FULL DAY, JUST TO SUPPORT OUR INDIVIDUAL TRAINING IS AMAZING TO ME. IT REALLY SPEAKS VOLUMES TO THE FACT THAT EVERY ONE IN THE AGENCY IS DEDICATED TO US CONCEDING AND ALSO THE MISSION SUCCEEDING. I GET PAID TO DO THIS AND THERE ARE USUALLY TEN OR 20 OTHER PEOPLE THERE TO HELP ME IMPROVE AND GET THE MISSION DONE. THAT’S OPINION REALLY COOL TO — BEEN REALLY COOL TO SEE.>>>THERE’S SO MANY DIVERSION BACKGROUNDS ON THE STAGE. THINKING ABOUT THE HISTORY OF FLYING, A LOT OF PEOPLE GO BACK TO APOLLO, GEMINI OR MERCU ARE, Y. IN THOSE MISSIONS IT WAS LARGELY AIF YAUTORS. WHICH YOU ARE ONE. NOW IT IS IT DIVERSION AND BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER WHERE YOU CAN WORK TOGETHER AND MIZ THE OPPORTUNITIES — MAXIMISE OPPORTUNITIES IN SPACE. DOING IT IN THE TRAINING ENVIRONMENT IS IMPRESSIVE. THANK YOU FOR THE AMAZING COMMENTS. WE HAVE OUR FIRST QUESTION FROM SOCIAL MEDIA. WE WILL GO TO THE SOCIAL MEDIA QUESTION. IT IS: WHAT ASTRONAUT DO YOU LOOK UP TO THE MOST AND TAKE INSPIRATION FROM? I’M GOING TO OPEN THIS UP TO THE FIRST PERSON WHO IS WILLING TO RAISE THEIR HAND. IF YOU HAD TO PICK AN ASTRONAUT THAT YOU LOOK UP TO, WHO WOULD THAT BE?>>OBVIOUSLY A VERY DIFFICULT QUESTION. TO PARAPHRASE, QUOTING FROM SOMEBODY SMART, STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF – I THINK IT WAS NEWTON — STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS. WHEN I WAS ON BOARD THE U.S. S EISENHOVE NEIL CAME OUT TO VISIT. HE WAS HUMBLE AND YOU COULD TERROR HE WAS MISSION ORIENTED AND JUST DID HIS JOB QUIETLY AND RESPECTFULLY. HE IS A GOOD PINNACLE FOR THIS JOB TO LOOK UP TO.>>>THERE IS A NEW MOVIE COMING OUT ABOUT HIS LIFE WHICH I HAVE SEEN MANY IT IS EXTREMELY MOVING. FOR THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED IN SPACE AND INTERESTED IN HISTORY, THIS IS A MOVIE ABOUT A PERSON, ABOUT A PERSON’S LIFE. I’VE GOT TO TELL YOU WHEN THE MOVIE WAS OVER, I COULDN’T MOVE. I JUST SAT THERE. I JUST KIND OF WAS THINKING ABOUT HIS LIFE. THE FACT THAT YOU HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO MEET HIM. DID YOU MEET HIM WHEN HE WAS THERE?>>YES. HE CAME OUT WITH A COUPLE OTHER FOLKS WHILE WE WERE UP THE COAST DOING OPERATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN.>>>THAT SHOWS YOU HIS DEDICATION LONG AFTER HIS SERVICE WAS OVER, MILITARY AND N.A.S.A., HE WAS STILL FOCUSED ON BEING INVOLVED IN THE LIVES OF THE PEOPLE THAT WERE DOING WHAT HE USED TO DO. SO THAT IS GREAT. LOOK AT YOU NOW. DID YOU KNOW THAT THIS IS WHAT YOU WANTED TO DO?>>YES, ABSOLUTELY.>>>IT STILL INSPIRED YOU?>>HE WAS AN INSPIRATION. HE WAS SOMETHING IN THE DISTANCE OF MAYBE I COULD BE HERE.>>>ANYBODY ELSE?>>I ECHO THAT. I HAD AN OPPORTUNITY TO MEET HIM SEVERAL YEARS AGO. SAME THING. HIS HUE HUMILITY AND HIS ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO THE GIANT TEAM THAT IS N.A.S.A. THAT GOT HIM THERE IN THE INDUSTRY BEHIND IT. HIS HU MILITY WAS INSPIRING. ALSO JOHN YOUNG, WHO PASSED AWAY, BUT HIS PROFESSIONALISM AND HIS EXPERIENCE AND DEDICATION TO ADVANCING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT WAS VERY INSPIRATIONAL AS WELL.>>>IT’S INTERESTING YOU MENTION JOHN YOUNG. IF I REMEMBER RIGHT, HE WAS INVOLVED IN APOLLO. HE FLEW THE SPACE SHUTTLE AS WELL.>>YES. A VERY BROAD EXPERIENCE. SO HE GOT TO WALK ON THE MOON AND FLEW THE FIRST SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHT. THAT WAS MY INSPIRATIONAL MOMENT WHEN I WAS A YOUNG KID GETTING TO WATCH. AND FOLLOWING THAT MISSION IS WHAT SET MY SITES ON THIS INITIALLY.>>>THANK YOU FOR THAT. I WAS INFORMED THAT WE MIGHT HAVE A QUESTION FROM THE AUDIENCE. DOES SOMEBODY WANT TO RAISE THEIR HAND? WE’VE GOT MICROPHONES AVAILABLE. YOU HAVE TO STAND UP AND TALK INTO THE MICROPHONE..>>WHAT IS THE HARDEST PART OF YOUR TRAINING? WHAT WAS THE HARDEST PART OF YOUR TRAINING?>>>THEY PROBABLY HAVE THE HARDEST PART COMING UP, BUT THAT IS A GOOD QUESTION BECAUSE THEY’VE BEEN THROUGH STUFF ALREADY.>>I THINK I WOULD PROBABLY SAY LEARNING THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE FIRST. SOME OF US MAY FLY TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION WHERE WE WORK CLOSE WITH PARTNERS THERE. AS A 33-YEAR-OLD LEARNING ANOTHER LANGUAGE IS DIFFICULT. IT REMINDS ME OF I HAVE A FAVORITE QUOTE WHICH IS IT’S NOT THAT HARD, BURR IT’S A LOT OF IT. I THINK THAT GOES FOR OUR TRAINING AS WELL. WE DO A DIVERSION RANGE OF THINGS, FLYING, BEING IN THE NEUTRAL BOUYANCY LAB, LEARNING VARIOUS THINGS, A RANGE OF EVERYTHING WE DO.>>>OTHERS? MOST DIFFICULT THINGS? SOMEBODY HAS GOT TO HAVE SOMETHING DIFFICULT THAT THEY’VE DONE.>>I’D HAVE TO ECHO WHAT WOODY SAID, AND THE WIDESPREAD KNOWLEDGE. EVERYTHING FROM RUSSIAN TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. THERE’S SOMETHING NEW EVERY DAY. RECENTLY SOME OF US HAS GOTTEN TO TRAINING THE INITIAL POINTS LAB IN THE SPACE SUIT. I HAD MY FIRST RUN LAST WEEK AND I FOUND THAT TO BE ONE OF THE MORE PHYSICALLY CHALLENGING THINGS IN THAT YOU HAVE TO BE – WE TAKE THINGS FOR GRANTED SUCH AS LIFTING YOUR ARM UP ABOVE YOUR HEAD WHICH IS FOREIGN IN THAT SPACE SUIT. I FOUND THAT TO BE CHALLENGING AND HUMBLING AND WAS A LOT OF FUN.>>>EVEN FOR A NAVY SEAL.>>YES.>>>AWESOME. I’VE GOT A QUESTION I WILL ASK. I WILL TAKE THIS POINT OF PRIVILEGE TO IS A QUESTION. BOB, IT IS DIRECTED TO YOU. THIS IS AN IMPORTANT THING. A FEW MINUTES AGO WE WERE MEETING IN ANOTHER ROOM GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHER A LITTLE BETTER AND YOU PRESENTED ME THIS PATCH PATCH. THE FIRST REACTION WAS THAT’S INTERESTING. WE’RE TALKING ABOUT ASTRONAUT CANDIDATES, ABOUT OUR BRAND NEW CLASS OF ASTRONAUTS AND YOU GIVE ME A PATCH WITH A TURTLE ON IT. SHARE WITH ME AND THE AUDIENCE WHY THIS PATCH HAS A TURTLE ON IT?>>JUST OUR ANNOUNCE. LAST SUMMER THE VICE PRESIDENT CAME DOWN AND HE HELPED INTRODUCE OUR CLASS TO THE COUNTRY AND DURING HIS SPEECH HE TOLD THE STORY ABOUT A TURTLE ON A FENCE POST AND IF YOU WALK INTO A FIELD AND SEE A TURTLE ON A FENCE POST YOU KNOW IT DIDN’T GET THERE ITSELF. THAT TRANSLATES TO EVERYONE HERE. THERE IS A HUGE SUPPORT STRUCTURE BEHIND US, WHETHER IT BE OUR SPOUSES AND KIDS, OUR PARENTS OR MENTORS, ALL THAT STUFF, THEY ALL PLAYED A HUGE ROLE IN GETTING US TO THE POINT THAT WE’RE AT NOW. SO MUCH LIKE WE WERE ALIEU LEWDING TO NEIL ARMSTRONG ACKNOWLEDGING MASSES BEHIND THAT, WE HAVE THE SAME THING. MANY PEOPLE BEHIND US GETTING US HERE. THE CLASS IN FRONT OF US TOOK AN OPPORTUNITY TO NAME THE TURTLES AND WE’VE IMPRESSED IT AND IT IS — EMBRACED IT.>>>IT IS IMPORTANT. WE HAVE HERE TODAY NOT JUST THE ASTRONAUTS BUT THE NEWEST CLASS OF FLIGHT DIRECTORS AND WE’RE GOING TO DO ANOTHER SHOW. THEY MIGHT NOT BE READY FOR ME TO ANNOUNCE THIS, BUT WE WILL DO ANOTHER JUST LIKE THIS ONE WITH THE FLIGHT DIRECT YOURS SITTING IN YOUR SEATS — DIRECTORS SITTING IN YOUR SEATS. THEY ARE JUST AS CRITICAL TO ALL OF YOUR MISSIONS AS YOU ARE AS ARE SO MANY OTHERS HERE AT N.A.S.A. AND OUR CONTRACTORS AND OUR PROVIDERS OF THE SERVICES. WE WANT TO BE ABLE TO SHOWCASE THE INTERIR ENTERPRISE THAT AT THE END OF THE DAY — ENTIRE SURPRISES, THAT YOU ARE TAKING ON THE RISK AND PEOPLE OUT THERE DOING EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU’RE SAFE AND PREPARED AND THAT WE’RE GETTING THE ABSOLUTE BEST DISCOVERY AND SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION FROM WHAT YOU’RE DOING AND THAT IS THE HISTORY AND TRADITION OF THE COMPANY. I LOVE THE STORY, THE PATCH, THE TURTLES AND I APPRECIATE YOU SHARING THAT. [ APPLAUSE ].>>>ANOTHER QUESTION. HOW IS THE CURRENT RESEARCH IN SPACE HELPING YOU TO PREPARE HUMANS FOR A JOURNEY TO MARS AND BEYOND? BEYOND?>>I WILL TAKE THIS ONE.>>>FOR EVERYBODY, JESSICA IS THE MARS GEOLOGIST FROM PLANET EARTH.>>YES, CORRECT. I THINK THERE IS ACTUALLY A LOT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH THAT ARE GOING TO BE NECESSARY TO HELP PREPARE A SPORT, A JOURNEY TO THE MOON OR TO MARS OR WHENEVER THAT DESIGNATION MIGHT BE. I THINK ONE BIG PIECE OF THAT IS SENDING ROBOTICS TO THESE PLACES, SO TO MOON AND MARS WE HAVE INSTRUMENTS THAT ARE IN ORBIT AND ALSO THE ROVER IS PROVIDING US WITH AN UNDERSTANDING OF THESE BODIES, FIRST FINDING A GOOD PLACE FOR US TO GO THAT HAS RESOURCES THAT WE MIGHT BE ABLE TO USE, AND ALSO IS SAFE FOR US. RELATED TO THAT STUDYING THE RADIATION INVOLVED IN THE JOURNEY TO PARTICULARLY TO MARS, HOW WE CAN MITIGATE THAT RISK FOR US AS HUMANS. THERE’S A LOT OF REALLY GREAT WORKING BEING DONE ON THAT AT NASA. I’M WORKING ON GETTING ROCKETS TO GET US TO THE MOON AND OUT TO MARS AND BACK IS A BIG PART OF THAT. I THINK THERE’S A LOT THAT KIND OF GOES INTO THIS BIG PICTURE OF HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT. WE HAVE TOUCHED ON THAT BUT WE REALLY ARE THE TIP OF A REALLY LARGE ICEBERG. THERE’S A LOT OF PEOPLE PUTTING TIME AND ENERGY INTO SOLVING THESE TOUGH PROBLEMS TO ALLOW US TO EXPLORE FURTHER. .>>>THAT’S A WONDERFUL RESPONSE. A LOT OF THINGS THAT NASA DOES THAT PEOPLE DON’T SEE, BEHIND THE SCENES RIGHT NOW WE’RE DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY, WE HAVE AMAZING SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS THAT ARE ADVANCING SOLAR ELECTRIC PROPULSION TO HELP US GET TO MARS, WHAT’S CALLED THE HIGHEST SPECIFIC IMPULSE POSSIBLE. WE WANT TO BE ABLE TO GET THERE WITH PROPULSION THAT DOESN’T – WE DON’T WANT TO LAUNCH MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF FULTS INTO SPACE TO GET TO MARS. SO SOLAR ELECTRIC PROPULSION CAN HELP US GET THERE FASTER AND EFFICIENTLY WITHOUT LAUNCHING SO MUCH MASS INTO SPACE. WE’RE TRIGG TO FIGURE OUT THE ANIESOLOGIST WITH THE DEEP SPACE RADIATION, MICRO GRAVITY ENVIRONMENT. ON THE I.S.S. WE HAVE HAD ASTRONAUTS FOR 18 YEARS THERE WITH AN INTERNATIONAL TREATY AND OUR ASTRONAUTS ARE DEMONSTRATING THAT HUMANS CAN, IN FACT, LIVE AND WORK IN SPACE. THERE ARE NO DOUBT CHALLENGES TO HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND WE’RE LEARNING WHAT THOSE ARE AND WE’RE PUTTING IN PLACE COUNTER MEASURES FOR THAT ACTIVITY. SO THERE’S A LOT HAPPENING. WHAT I THINK IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE ALSO IS THAT THE MOON IS ACTUALLY AN AMAZING PROVING GROUND. WE CAN GO TO THE MOON. IT’S A THREE-DAY JOURNEY HOME. WE KNOW IN THIS ROOM BECAUSE WE’RE FOLLOWERS OF THE HISTORY, APOLLO 13, WHICH SOME CALL A DISASTER AND OTHERS AN AMAZING SUCCESS, IT WAS POSSIBLE TO BRING OUR ASTRONAUTS HOME BECAUSE IT WAS A THREE-DAY JOURNEY HOME. HAD SOMETHING LIKE THAT HAPPENED ON THE WAY TO MARS, IT WOULDN’T HAVE WORKED OUT, BUT IN THIS PARTICULAR CASE THE MOON IS AN AMAZING PROVING GROUND TO DEMONSTRATE THE TECHNOLOGIES TO REDID YOU SAY THE — REDUCE THE RISK, PROVE EVERYTHING WE NEED TO KNOW ABOUT LIFE AND SCIENCE AND PHYSIOLOGYS SO WE CAN MAKE THAT JOURNEY TO MARS. YOU MENTIONED ROBOTICS. AGAIN, WE HAVE LEARNED SO MUCH. THE UNITED STATES IS THE ONLY COUNTRY AND WE’VE DONE IT WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS, BUT WE’RE STILL THE ONLY COUNTRY THAT HAS LANDED ON THE SURFACE OF MARS WITH LANDSERS AND ROVERS. WE’VE DONE IT SEVEN TIMES AND ON NOVEMBER 26 THE MONDAY AFTER THANKSGIVING WE’RE LANDING ON MARS FOR AN 8TH TIME WITH INSIGHT, WHICH IS A GEOLOGIST, I KNOW YOU’RE GOING TO BE REALLY INTERESTED IN WHAT COMES FROM THAT. WE’RE GOING TO BE ABLE TO GET A 3D IMAGE OF WHAT THE INSIDE OF MARS IS LIKE. WE WILL STUDY MARS QUAKES, HOW ACTIVE IS THE GEOLOGY, HOW OFTEN IS IT IMPACTED WITH METEORS AND THESE THINGS THAT ARE GOING TO BE NECESSARY, NOT JUST TO UNDERSTAND THE PLANET BUT ALSO TO PREPARE FOR AN EVENTUAL HUMAN LANDING WHICH A MARS GEOLOGIST MIGHT BE THE RIGHT PERSON TO SEND ON A JOURNEY TO MARS. SO A LOT OF REALLY EXCITING THINGS HAPPENING AT NASA AND, OF COURSE, YOUR INSIGHT THERE IS VALUABLE. SO I’M GOING TO GO BACK TO THE AUDIENCE. THERE HAS TO BE ANOTHER PERSON THAT’S INTERESTED IN ASKING. WE’VE HAVE A COUPLE OF YOUNG FOLKS WHICH I’M THRILLED TO SEE. STAND UP, SAY WHAT YOUR NAME IS AND IS THE QUESTION.>>I’M ANNE. WHAT EXCITES YOU THE MOST ABOUT GOING TO SPACE?>>>WHAT EXCITES YOU THE MOST ABOUT GOING TO SPACE. LAUREL?>>I THINK THE ONE THING OR ONE OF THE THINGS THAT I’M MOST EXCITED ABOUT IS JUST GETTING TO SEE THE EARTH FROM THE UNIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF BEING IN SPACE WHERE YOU CAN SEE IT ALL BY OURSELVES OUT THERE IN THE VASTNESS OF SPACE, EVERYBODY ON THE PLANET. IT WOULD BE ABORIGINE OVERWHELMING FEELING AND GIVE YOU A UNIQUE PERSPECTIVE — AN OVERWHELMING FEELING.>>>I LOOK BACK AND THIS YEAR WE’RE CELEBRATING THE ANNIVERSARY OF APOLLO 8 WHICH WAS THE FIRST TIME WE ORBITED THE MOON AND WE GOT PICTURES FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY OF THE EARTH IN ITS ENTIRETY FROM THE VICINITY OF THE MOON. OF COURSE, THAT PICTURE HAS NOW BEEN, OF COURSE, LIFE MAGAZINE AND PRETTY MUCH EVERY PUBLICATION ON THE PLANET COVERED THAT AND IT REALLY CHANGED THE PERSPECTIVE OF A LOT OF PEOPLE, WHO WE ARE AS EARTH. WE’RE THIS PALE PLU DARK IN THIS OCEAN OF DARKNESS AND HOW IMPORTANT THIS PLANET IS — PALE BLUE DARK. SOMEBODY ELSE?>>MY NAME IS SIMEEHAW. WHAT MAKES YOU WANT TO BE AN ASTRONAUT? WHAT DROVE YOU OR STILL DRIVES YOU TO BECOME AN ASTRONAUT?>>THANK YOU FOR THAT QUESTION. I GET ASKED THIS A LOT. WHEN I THINK ABOUT IT, IF I THINK ABOUT TO WHEN I WAS YOUR AGE, FOR EXAMPLE, I TELL PEOPLE THAT THE ONE THING THAT I REMEMBER MORE THAN ANYTHING IS JUST BEING SUPER CURIOUS ABOUT EVERYTHING, WANTING TO EXPLORE AND LOOK AND GO FURTHER AND IF THERE WAS SOMETHING THAT I HAD NEVER DONE AND THAT I VIEWED AS BEING VERY DIFFICULT TO DO, I WANTED TO GO AND TRY TO DO IT TO SEE WHAT I WOULD LEARN FROM MYSELF ABOUT DOING IT. AS I GREW UP, I DEVELOPED OTHER INTERESTS. I STARTED TO BECOME REALLY INTERESTED IN FLYING AND SCIENCE AND THEN I GOT INTO TEST FLYING AND ALL THE REST OF IT, BUT REALLY THE VERY FIRST THING WAS THIS OVERWHELMING CURIOSITY. ON A BEGGAR SCALE IT IS IMPORTANT TO US, TO US AS HUMANS IN THE WORLD THAT WE ENGAGE IN THAT, THAT WE’RE CONSTANTLY REDEFINING WHAT THE IMPOSSIBLE IS, PUSHING LIMITS AND LOOKING FURTHER. FOR ME THAT’S WHERE IT STARTED AND I THINK THAT’S STILL A BIG PART OF WHY I’M HERE AND EXCITED TO GO TO WORK EVERY DAY. A GOOD QUESTION.>>>I’M GOING TO JENNY.>>I WANT TO ECHO WHAT JOSHUA SAID IN THAT CURIOSITY IS A BIG COMPONENT AND A BIG DRIVER FOR WHAT WE DO. IT CERTAINLY WAS VERY MOTIVATING IN MY CASE AS WELL. SPACE FLIGHT IS REALLY INTERESTING AND SUCH THAT WE KNOW WE’RE GOING TO LEARN A LOT. WE DON’T NECESSARILY KNOW WHAT WE’RE GOING TO LEARN, I MEAN THE TECHNOLOGIES THAT COME FROM THE FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE WE GAIN FROM EXPLORING.>>SOMETIMES WE LEARN HOW MUCH WE DON’T KNOW.>>EXACTLY. IT’S JUST THIS INCREDIBLE JOURNEY. IT’S REALLY INSPIRING. ONE OF THE THINGS I’D BE REALLY EXCITED ABOUT ADDING TO WHAT LAUREL SAID AS WELL, SEEING THE EARTH FROM THAT PERSPECTIVE, IT’S ALSO THE EXCITEMENT THAT COMES WITH WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO LEARN SO THAT CURIOSITY AND I GUESS PUSH TO LEARN MORE IS INCREDIBLE MOTIVATING, I THINK, FOR MOST OF US.>>>YOU SOUND LIKE A PHD.>>I TRY TO HIDE IT.>>>FRAVRNG?>>SURE — FRANK?>>SURE. WE COME FROM VERY DIFFERENT BACKGROUNDS BUT MANY HAVE SIMILAR PERNTS IN THAT WHEN WE WERE YOUNG WE LOVED TO EXPLORE, AND I THINK THAT THAT DRIVES — PERSONALITIES. THAT DRIVES, IT IS DEEP WITHIN ALL OF US. WHAT WE DO IS REPRESENT TEAMS, WE REPRESENT NASA, OUR MILITARIES, OR SCHOOLS, BECAUSE I THINK HUMANITY IS DRIVEN BY WANTING TO EXPLORE. THAT’S A NEAT PRIVILEGE.>>>WE’RE GOING TO GO TO SOCIAL MEDIA AND THEN I KNOW WE’VE GOT ANOTHER QUESTION FROM THE AUDIENCE. MANY OF NASA ASTRONAUT CANDIDATES HAVE MILITARY FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, BUT WHAT OTHER FIELDS OF STUDY ARE ESSENTIAL FOR BECOMING AN ASTRONAUT? THERE’S A VERY DIVERSION GROUP OF BACKGROUNDS HERE.>>DESPITE THE FACT THAT I’M ACTUALLY ONE OF THOSE MILITARY AIF YATORS — AVIATORS. IT IS A DIVERSION GROUP AND WE HAVE SO MANY PEOPLE THAT HAVE DONE INTERESTING THINGS. YOU THINK OF THE FIRST CLASS OF NASA. IT WAS ALL MILITARY AIF YATORS AND I’M — AVIATORS AND WE’VE MOVED AWAY FROM THAT. WE HAVE TAKEN MANY COURSES IN GEOLOGY AND IT’S SO APPLICABLE TO WE’RE TALKING ABOUT EXPLORING OTHER BODIES OTHER THAN EARTH. WE OF DONE A LOT OF ANALOGUES BACK AND WE CAN LOOK AT CERTAIN THINGS ON EARTH AND WHAT DOES THAT TELL US ABOUT SEEING OIRNGS ON OTHER BODIES. XENA STUDIED SOMETHING WAY ABOVE MY HEAD, BUT ONE OF THE MOST EXCITING THINGS, THE POSSIBILITY OF PA FINDING LIFE SOMEWHERE OUTSIDE OF EARTH AND I THINK THOSE WOULD PLAY INTO THAT. JOHNNY AND FRANK WHO ARE MEDICAL DOCTORS. SO MUCH OF WHAT WE’RE STUDYING, ESPECIALLY TALKING ABOUT LONG-DURATION MISSIONS IS THE EFFECTS ON THE BODY, RADIATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS, ALL THOSE THINGS. WOODY, LAUREL, ANY TIME WE’VE GOT A QUESTION ON MECHANICS OR ANYTHING WE GO TO OUR RESIDENT EXPERT WOODY. SO MANY OF THESE THINGS. WE’RE STUDYING SUCH A DIE DIVERSION AND BROAD RANGE, WE HAVE SUCH BROAD BACKGROUNDS THAT WE NEED TO PULL TOGETHER.>>>YOU SAID XINA AND JESSE, I’VE BEEN THE ADMINISTRATE OR FOR FIVE MONTHS NOW AND THERE HAVE BEEN SO MANY DISCOVERIES ABOUT IS THERE LIFE OUT THERE. WE KNOW SINCE I’VE BEEN HERE, WE KNOW THAT THERE IS LICK IED WATER ONE AND A HALF KILOMETERS UNDER THE SURFACE OF MARS. THAT’S A DISCOVERY WE DIDN’T KNOW WHEN I STARTED. IT IS FUNNY TO SEE THE CHIEF SCIENTIST AT NASA SAY THIS, “GUESS WHAT WE JUST FOUND? “, AND TO KNOW THERE WILL BE PEOPLE, IN FACT MAYBE THE FOLKS HERE ARE TAKING THOSE MISSIONS TO LEARN EVEN MORE WITH HUMAN EXPLORATION. WE NOW KNOW THAT THERE’S COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON THE SURFACE OF MARS. IT DOESN’T GUARANTEE THAT THERE’S LIFE, BUT IT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY THAT THERE IS LIFE, WHICH IS ANOTHER IMPORTANT DISCOVERY AGAIN JUST IN MY SHORT FIVE MONTHS HERE. THE IDEA THAT METHANE CYCLES ON MARS ARE PERFECTLY CORRELATED WITH THE SEASONS OF MARS AGAIN DOESN’T GUARANTEE LIFE BUT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY. THIS DIVERSION GROUP OF FOLKS THAT — DIVERSION GROUP OF FOLKS IN THIS CLASS IS GOING TO HAVE OPPORTUNITIES TO MAKE AMAZING DISCOVERIES. IF WE’RE SUCCESSFUL IN YOUR TIME AT NASA, AND I CAN’T MAKE ANY GUARANTEES, SOME PEOPLE ARE OLDER THAN OTHERS, BOB, BUT IT WOULD BE AMAZING IF SOME OF THE PEOPLE HERE WERE TO MAKE THAT FIRST TRIP TO MARS AND I THINK THAT’S IN THE REALM OF POSSIBILITY. WE’RE GOING TO THE MOON, WE’RE GOING TO RETIRE THIS RICK AND THEN WE’RE GOING TO PROVE OUT THE TECHNOLOGIES AND TAKE GATEWAY, THAT FIRST GATEWAY IS GOOD PROVING TECHNOLOGY. THE SECOND ONE IS DEEP SPACE TRANSPORT AND THAT COULD BE OUR VEHICLE TO GET TO MARS. SO A LOT OF EXCITING THINGS AND THE BACKGROUNDS HERE IS AMAZING. ANOTHER QUESTION FROM THE AUDIENCE.>>I’M RYAN. I WORK FOR NASA. SO YOU ARE GOING TO ACTUALLY HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO DO SOMETHING THAT MOST PEOPLE ONLY GET THEORETICALLY TO DO. WHAT WOULD YOU TAKE WITH YOU TO A DESERT ISLAND? SO YOU’RE LITERALLY, THERE’S NO STORAGE AND YOU HAVE TO THINK HARD ABOUT WHAT TO TAKE. HAVE YOU GOT THOUGHTS ABOUT NATAL?>>>A GOOD POINT.>>WOODY. I WOULD TAKE WOODY. I THINK I’D TAKE A LONG-RANGE RADIO.>>SATELLITE PHONE.>>IN ALL SERIOUSNESS, LOOKING TOWARDS THE MISSIONS, WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT IT A LOT OF TIMES, BUT WE’RE THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG. WITHOUT THE ABILITY TO COMMUNITY WITH THE TEAM, WE HAVE DIVERSION BACKGROUNDS BUT ANYONE BY OURSELVES WOULD NOT LAST LONG. COMMUNICATION TO ME WOULD BE THE MOST IMPORTANT THING TO HELP WITH THE JOURNEY AND ALSO TO SHARE THAT JOURNEY, BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY JUST TO STAY ALIVE ON THE JOURNEY BECAUSE THERE ARE A WHOLE BUNCH OF THINGS ON THAT SPACECRAFT THAT I NEED HELP WITH, OR DESERT ISLAND.>>>GREAT. I’VE IN THIS QUESTION A LOT AND THE QUESTION IS HOW MANY APPLICANTS WERE THERE TO BE IN YOUR CLASS? DOES ANYBODY HERE KNOW THE ANSWER OFF HAND?>>I THINK IT WAS AROUND 18,000.>>>18,000 PEOPLE APPLIED FOR YOUR JOB AND YET THIS GROUP HERE WAS SELECTED. OF COURSE THIS WAS A NEW THING. WAS THERE ANYBODY ON THE STAGE THAT HAD APPLIED FOR THE ASTRONAUT POSITION PREVIOUSLY? WE HAVE A NUMBER OF FOLKS. HOW MANY TIMES DID IT TAKE? I HAVE TALKED TO ASTRONAUTS THAT WORK HERE AT THE HEADQUARTERS BUILDING THAT HAVE SAID THEY GOT ACCEPTED ON THEIR 8TH APPLICATION TO BE IN THE ASTRONAUT CORPS. IT SHOWS THAT THIS PERSON WAS QUALIFIED AND STILL IS QUALIFIED AS YOU ARE IT’S STILL EXTREMELY DIFFICULT TO GET INTO THE CORPS AND YET HERE YOU ARE. IF YOU DON’T MIND, SHARE WITH US THE EXPERIENCE OF THE FIRST APPLICATION, SECOND, THIRD, WHATEVER AND THEN ULTIMATELY WHAT IT WAS LIKE TO FINALLY GET THE YES. ANYONE?>>I APPLIED THREE TIMES. I STARTED APPLYING BASICALLY AS SOON AS I WAS OLD ENOUGH. THE FIRST TIME I APPLIED I WAS STILL IN GRAD SCHOOL AND I DON’T THINK I MET THE BASIC QUALIFICATIONS. THIS IS MY THIRD TIME APPLYING. I GUESS THAT’S ALL.>>>AWESOME. BOB?>>I THINK ONE OF THE UNIQUE THINGS ABOUT THE APPLICATION PROCESS THAT WE GO THROUGH IS WE GET TO SPEND TWICE A FULL WEEK WITH THE OTHER PEOPLE THAT ARE ALSO COMPETING FOR THE SAME JOB. THAT’S PRETTY UNIQUE TO MOST ANY OTHER JOB THAT’S OUT THERE. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT OUR EYES ARE OPENED TO IS THE QUALITY OF THE APPLICANTS THAT ARE COMING IN. MOST OF US WOULD AGREE THAT THERE ARE MULTITUDES OF OTHER PEOPLE THAT ARE JUST AS OR MORE QUALIFIED POTENTIALLY THAN WE ARE. SO WE’RE INCREDIBLY BLESSED AND FORTUNATE TO HAVE BEEN SELECTED BY NASA ON THIS. WE, OBVIOUSLY, ENJOY IT. WE’VE GOT A GREAT GROUP DYNAMIC WITH OUR GROUP AND THAT’S PART OF WHAT GOES INTO, I THINK, MAKING A GOOD COHESIVE CLASS FOR US. TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTION, THIS IS MY THIRD APPLICATION AND I DID NOT INTERVIEW AT ALL ON EITHER OF THE FIRST TWO. SO IT’S AN INCREDIBLE EXPERIENCE TO GO THROUGH THAT PROCESS, BUT IT IS VERY EYE-OPENING. AS MANY MAY OR MAY NOT KNOW, AS PILOT FIGHTERS THERE’S AN EGO THAT GOES LIKE THAT, BUT IN A GROUP LIKE THIS YOU REALISE YOU JUST FLY PLANES.>>>KAYLA, YOU’RE A SUBMARINER, U.S. NAVY. WE HAVE A QUESTION FROM SOCIAL MEDIA WHICH I THINK IS INTERESTING ABOUT AN LUNAR BASE. IT ASKS HOW WOULD AN LUNAR BASE OR COLONY SFAEKT THE FUTURE OF SPACE TRAVEL — AFFECT THE FUTURE OF SPACE TRAVEL? HAVE YOU HAD THOUGHTS ABOUT THIS?>>AS YOU POINTED OUT, THE OPPORTUNITY TO WORK ON THE MOON IS A GREAT PROVING GROUND FOR FUTURE EXPLORATION DEEPER IN SPACE. I THINK THERE’S A LOT WE CAN LEARN FROM OPERATING IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS. WE’RE DOING THAT ALREADY HERE ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH. SUBNASA HAS A LOT OF PROJECTS INCLUDING NE MO, WHICH IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO LIVE UNDER WATER AND BASICALLY A SUBMERGED HABITAT AND DO SCUBA DIVING THAT SIMULATES DOING A SPACE WALK. THE BASE JUST TAKES THAT TO THE NEXT LEVEL. IT WOULD TEACH US A LOT ABOUT HOW WE NEED TO OPERATE WHEN WE’RE FURTHER FROM EARTH AND SUPPORT TEAM AND WHEN WE HAVE FEW RESOURCES.>>>I GET THIS QUESTION A LOT BECAUSE PEOPLE WANT TO KNOW WHY ARE WE GOING BACK TO THE MOON. WE HAVE GOT GEOLOGISTS HERE AS WELL. WHEN YOU THINK BACK TO THE APOLLO PROPOSAL WE LANDED SIX TIMES ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON WITH 12 PEOPLE. EACH TIME IT WAS IN THAT REGION OF THE MOON. WHEN WE THINK ABOUT GATEWAY AND WHAT IT IS, WE’RE TALKING ABOUT A HABITAT IN ORBIT AROUND THE MOON. WHAT THE GATEWAY WILL ALLOW US TO DO IS TO HAVE MORE ACCESS TO MORE PARTS OF THE MOON THAN EVER BEFORE. THINKING BACK IN HISTORY, PEOPLE HAVE THOUGHT ABOUT THAT THERE MIGHT BE WATER ICE ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. WHAT WE HAVE DISCOVERED IN 2008 AND IN 2009 THAT THERE IS WATER AND DISCOVERED THAT THERE ARE HOLD-UPS OF BILLIONS OF TONS OF WATER ICE ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. THAT’S ONE OF THE REASONS HOW IT WOULD AFFECT THE TRAVEL WATER ICE IS SUPPORT. UTILISING THE RESOURCES OF THE MOON FOR LIFE SUPPORT WATER IS, OF COURSE, THERE TO DRINK. ICE MELT IT, YOU’VE GOT WATER, CRACK IT INTO HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN, WHICH IS NECESSARY TO BREATHE, AND WHEN PUTTING THOSE IN CRYOGENIC FORM THAT’S ROCKET PROPULSION. SOME WILL BE LAUNCHING FROM LIQUID OXYGEN NITROGEN ROCKET. THIS IS AN IMPORTANT QUESTION, SOMETHING WE NEED TO THIS THINK ABOUT. WE PUT HABITATIONS ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON, WE WILL GET MORE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE SURFACE. 1969 WE HANDED ON THE MOON AND IT TOOK UNTIL 2009 BEFORE WE KNEW THAT THERE WERE HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS OF WATER ICE. HOW MANY DO WE STILL NOT KNOW ABOUT THE MOON? COULD THERE BE, AND I DON’T HAVE AN ANSWER, NOBODY ELSE DOES, BUT WE KNOW THERE ARE RARE EARTH METALS ARE THAT EXTREMELY VALUABLE. THEY’RE AS TROYED IMPACTS, NOT EARTH METALS AT ALL. COULD THERE BE THOSE METALS ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON WHERE THERE’S AN ACTIVE GEOLOGY AND WOULD THEY BE RIGHT WHERE THEY IMPACTED A BILLION YEARS AGO OR HOWEVER LONG AGO IT MIGHT HAVE BEEN. THESE ARE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS ABOUT THE SURFACE OF THE MOON AND WHAT COMES NEXT FOR THE FUTURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION. I’M GOING TO GO TO A QUESTION THAT I HAVE HERE ON A CARD. I MENTIONED SLS, WE MENTIONED COMMERCIAL CREW GOING BACK AND FORTH TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ON COMMERCIAL ROCKETS. X XENA, WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT WHAT MISSION YOU’D HIKE TO BE INVOLVED IN, WHAT WOULD BE YOUR DREAM CHOICE AND WHY?>>THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION AND I THINK WE ALL HAVE THE VERY CORNY BORING ANSWER THAT SERIOUSLY WE WOULD TAKE ANYTHING. IT IS EXCITING TO ME THAT YOU CAN EVEN ASK THAT QUESTION AND THAT THERE ARE MULTIPLE OPTIONS FOR US TO CHOOSE FROM. THAT’S AN EXCITING TIME TO BE A PART OF THE SPACE PROGRAM. I WOULD GO ON ANY MISSION WITH ANY ONE OF THESE TURTLES.>>>YOU’RE RIGHT. THE IDEA THAT WE’VE GOT TWO DIFFERENT, VERY DISSIMILAR DESIGNS WITH UNITED LAUNCH ALLIANCE AND BEOING AND SPACEX, LAUNCHING TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION NEXT YEAR WITH HUMANS AND AT THE SAME TIME WE’RE BUILDING THE LARGEST ROCKET, BIGGER THAN THE STATUTE OF LIBERTY. THAT HAS GOT TO BE INTIMIDATING, NOT THAT THE OTHERS AREN’T, BUT WHAT AN AMAZING OPPORTUNITY IN THIS COUNTRY TO HAVE ALL OF THIS AND NOW ON THE PRESS PIES OF SEEING IT REALIZED — PRECIPICE OF SEEING IT REALIZED. THEN WANT TO WEIGH IN? JESSE WANTS TO GO TO MARS SO ALL ABOUT THE LCS.>>I WOULD DEFINITELY TAKE IT, YES. I JUST WOULD PIGGYBACK ON. IT IS SUPER EXCITING TO HAVE THOSE OPPORTUNITIES TO ACTUALLY ON THE HORIZON WHEN IT’S JUST BECAUSE OF ALL OF THE GREAT WORK FOR OF THE TALENTED PEOPLE AAT NASA.>>>ANYONE ELSE? IMPRISONMENT I COMPLETELY ECHO THAT. WE WOULD TAKE ANY MISSION AND BE EXCITED. THE FACT THAT WE’RE BUILDING A NEW GATEWAY OUT NEAR THE MOON, I THINK THE OPPORTUNITY TO BE INVOLVED IN INSTRUCTING THAT IS EXCITING. WHILE I WOULD TAKE ANYTHING, THAT’S THE KIND OF THING OUT THERE SAYING IT’S AMAZING.>>.>>>IF WE NEED INFORMATION ABOUT ORBITAL PHYSICS, THEY GO TO YOU. MAYBE YOU CAN SHARE FOR THE AUDIENCE WHO A CERTAIN ORBIT IS. DON’T DO THAT, UNLESS YOU WANT TO..>>I CAN TRY. WE HAD A GOOD DISCUSSION ABOUT THIS AT DINNER LAST NIGHT. WE ARE TRUCKING ABOUT PUT –ING – TALKING ABOUT PUTTING THIS GATEWAY IN AN INTERESTING ORBIT, ONE AROUND THE MOON THAT HAS A LOT OF CONVENIENT PROPERTIES. FOR EXAMPLE, IT IS EASY TO CHANGE THE PLAIN OF THAT OR FWIT IF YOU COMPARE IT LIKE A SIR LAR ORBIT — CIRCULAR ORBIT. IT GIVES POSSIBILITIES LIKE GOING TO DIFFERENT PLACES IF WE DO WANT TO GO DOWN TO THE SURFACE.>>>THE IDEA BEHIND THE GATEWAY, WE THINK BACK TO THE OPOLLO ERA AND THINK ABOUT A COMMAND MODULE, THE ROCK ET ON THE LAUNCH PAD. WHAT CAME BACK WAS THAT LITTLE THING AT THE VERY TOP THAT HAD PEOPLE ON BOARD. THAT WAS ALL THAT CAME BACK AT THE END OF THE DAY. IMAGINE ARCHITECTURE THAT WE WANT TO BUILD THAT IS SUSTAINABLE WHERE ALL THE PIECES OF THE ARCHITECTURE ARE REUSABLE. WHAT THE GATEWAY REPRESENTS IS A REUSABLE DEMAND MODULE THAT CAN GO TO DIFFERENT ORBITS AROUND THE MOON, TO L1 AND L2, YOU CAN CHANGE WHAT THAT ORBIT IS, WHICH GIVES YOU MORE ACCESS TO MORE PARTS OF THE MOON THAN VRP BEFORE TO MAKE THOSE AMAZING DISCOVERIES. SO WE’RE THRILLED TO HAVE YOU INVOLVED IN THAT ACTIVITY. GET THROUGH CANDIDATE TRAINING AND I’M SURE YOU WILL BE INVOLVED IN ALL THOSE KIND OF ACTIVITIES. DID YOU HAVE SOMETHING ELSE? I KNOW WE HAD ANOTHER QUESTION FROM THE AUDIENCE OVER HERE. A LOT OF QUESTIONS FROM THE AUDIENCE.>>GOOD MORNING. IF YOU WERE ALLOWED ONE PERSONAL ITEM TO TAKE INTO SPACE TO REMIND YOU OF HOME, WHAT WOULD THAT BE?>>I HAVE AN ANSWER TO THIS. AT HOME I HAVE AN OLD-TIME PIECE, MECHANICALLY WOUND AND IT WAS BUILT-IN THE LATE 1800S PROBABLY. IT CAME FROM MIGRATE GRANDER THROUGH MY FATHER. I STILL HAVE THAT ON MY DESK AT HOME. IT IS AMAZING TO ME TO SIT AND LOOK AT THIS AND THINK THAT IN REALLY A SHORT TIME SPAN OF JUST A FEW GENERATIONS, WE’RE SITTING HERE WITH THESE PEOPLE TODAY AT NASA TALKING ABOUT ACTUALLY GOING TO THE MOON AND BEYOND. JUST SOMETHING FUNDAMENTALLY AMAZING TO THINK ABOUT IN TERMS OF THE PACE OF HUMAN INNOVATION, IN TERMS OF WHAT WE CAN DO WHEN WE COME TOGETHER AND TRY TO DO IT AND JUST IN TERMS OF HOW EXCITING THE FUTURE IS. THERE’S PROBABLY NOT WEIGHT FOR THAT BUT THAT’S WHAT IT IS THAT I WOULD TAKE.>>FOR ME IF YOU ASK ANY OF MY CLASSMATES, I REALLY LOVE PICTURES, WHICH IS I’M ALWAYS THE ONE SNAPPING PICTURES ON ALL OUR TRIPS. WHEN I DID MY DEEMPLOYMENT I ALWAYS CARRIED A BOOK OF PICTURES OF MY FRIENDS AND FAMILY. SO I THINK I WOULD BRING THAT.>>>WHAT DID YOU FLY?>>HELICOPTERS IN THE MARINE CORPS.>>>YOU WOULD TAKE THOSE PICTURES ON DEPLOYMENT IN THE COBRA?>>I WOULD. I WOULD CARRY THEM IN MY POCKET.>>>MORE QUESTIONS FROM THE AUDIENCE. NO OFFENCE, BUT WE WILL START WITH THE YOUNG FOLKS.>>MY NAME IS JORDAN. WHAT WAS YOUR FIRST REACTION WHEN YOU GOT TO NASA?>>I HAD THIS BHOEL SPEECH — WHOLE SPEECH PREPARED FOR SAYING THANK YOU FOR THE OPPORTUNITY, IT’S GREAT THAT I MADE IT THAT FAR BECAUSE I WAS CONVINCED I WASN’T GOING TO GET IT. I PICKED UP THE PHONE AND I ACTUALLY HAPPENED TO BE AT HOME OVER LUNCH AND MY WIFE WAS THERE. IT WAS A COMPLETE SHOCK. I KNOW THAT SOUNDS TRITE, BUT IT REALLY JUST IS, YOU NEVER SPECK TO GET IT. I’M NOT AN EMOTIONAL PERSON BUT I STARTED CRYING. IT WAS ONE OF THOSE, HUH, WHAT’S GOING ON? JUST A LITTLE BIT. IT WAS JUST AN OVERWHELMING EXCITEMENT THAT I WAS SHOCKED BY.>>I WOULD ADD TO THAT. I THINK THE CLASSES COVERED THOROUGHLY HOW WE ALL FEEL ABOUT HOW COMPETITIVE THE PROCESS IS, HOW AMAZING ALL OF THE OTHER CANDIDATES FOR THIS JOB WERE AND HOW LUCKY WE ARE TO BE HERE. ONE NOTE I WANT TO ADD, ESPECIALLY FOR THE VISITING GUYS, THINKING ABOUT WHAT YOU WANT TO DO GOING FORWARD AS MIDDLE COOLERS, THAT’S WHEN WE STARTED TO THINK ABOUT WHAT WE WANTED TO BE WHEN WE DPRU UP IN A SERIOUS WAY, AND FOR ME — GREW UP. I WANTED TO BE AN NAVAL OFFICER, IT WASN’T SUPER SPECIFIC, I DIDN’T REALISE I WANTED TO BE AN ASTRONAUT UNTIL A FEW YEARS AGO. I’VE HAD AMAZING MENTORS IN MY LIFE WHO SAW TENSIONS IN ME BEFORE I SAW IT. THAT’S CAUSED ME WANTING TO GO TO ABORIGINE A SUBMARINER AND APPLY TO BE AN ASTRONAUT. THESE BIG THINGS THAT SEEM REALLY INTIMIDATING LIKE WHOEVER GETS TO DO THAT, THAT CAN NEVER BE ME. I THINK WE ALL SOMETIMES HAVE THOSE DOUBTS BUT THE IMPORTANT THING IS THE ADVICE I GOT FROM MY LAST BOSS WHICH WAS IF YOU WANT TO BE AN ASTRONAUT YOU APPLY AND IF YOU DON’T APPLY YOU CAN’T BE ONE. FOR A LOT OF US TALKING ABOUT THE NUMBER OF TIMES WE APPLIED TO BE HERE OR WHETHER IT WAS OUR FIRST TIME OR NOT, IF YOU DON’T GO FOR IT, YOU WILL NEVER GET THE CALL. I THINK THE FLIGHT DIRECTORS PROBABLY FEEL THE SAME WAY. I DON’T KNOW THE EXACT NUMBERS B BUT THERE HAS BEEN FAR FEWER FLIGHT DIRECTORS THAN THERE RR ASTRONAUTS. IT IS A BIG THING TO PUT YOURSELF OUT THERE TO DO SOMETHING BIG BUT IF YOU DON’T DO IT, YOU WILL NEVER GET THE CHANCE.>>>ANYBODY ELSE?>>I’D SAY AS FRANK SAID, A WHITE RANGE OF EMOTIONS WHEN I FOUND OUT. CERTAINLY AN OVERWHELMING FEELING OF EXCITEMENT AND AMAZING OPPORTUNITY TO HAVE A PLATFORM AS BAYING AS NASA TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF OUR SPECIES. I WOULD SAY THERE’S ONE EMOTION THAT I WASN’T EXPECTING AND IT WAS – I DON’T KNOW IF “GUILT”, IS THE RIGHT WORD, BUT MAYBE A LITTLE BIT OF GUILT BECAUSE DURING THE SELECTION PROCESS YOU’RE EMBEDDED WITH AMAZING PEOPLE WHO CAN DO JUST AS GOOD IF NOT BETTER OF A JOB THAN YOU AND KNOWING THAT THIS IS A DREAM THAT’S SHARED BY THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE AND WE’RE JUST THE AMBASSADORS THAT HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO FULFIL THIS MISSION. THAT WAS AN EMOTION I WASN’T EXPECTING.>>>THAT’S AN AMAZING PERSPECTIVE. THE IDEA THAT YOU GO THROUGH THE PROCESS YOU GET TO KNOW HE MEAN AND NOT EVERYONE KNOWS ABOUT IT AND WHEN YOU DON’T GET SELECTED IT IS NOT A PERSPECTIVE I HAVEN’T HEARD.>>THE BEST WAY TO PAY THAT PACK IS TO START TO REMEMBER THAT AND DO THE BEST SHOT WE CAN.>>>WE’RE GOING TO GO TO A TIME QUESTION HERE ON SOCIAL MEDIA. WE HAVE TIME FOR MAYBE ONE APPEARS ON THIS. IF YOU REALLY HAVE A GOOD ANSWER OR YOU WANT TO BE THE PERSON, GO AHEAD AND MAKE IT KNOWN. IF NOT, I’M GOING TO DIME SOMEBODY OUT. WHAT RESEARCH DO YOU HOPE TO BE INVOLVED WITH IN MICRO GRAVITY THAT WILL HELP US GET ON — HELP US ON EARTH?>>I’LL TAKE THAT. I THINK ONE OF THE MOST EXCITING PARTS OF BEING INVOLVED IN THE SPACE PROGRAM IS GETTING TO DO RESEARCH THAT HELPS EARTH AS A WHOLE. EVERYTHING FROM HOW DO WE COMBAT BONE DENSITY LOSS TO HOW DO WE PREVENT THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION TO HOW DO WE DO REALLY EFFICIENT WASTE WATER RECYCLING. EVERY TECHNOLOGY THAT WE DEVELOP FOR SPACE EXPLORATION HAS SOME APPLICATION BACK HERE ON EARTH, AND TO BE A PART OF A RESEARCH PROJECT THAT IS SO MANY MUCH BIGGER THAN ANY OF THE RESEARCH THAT I DID AS AN INDIVIDUAL BEFORE, THAT’S AMAZING.>>>THAT’S A LOT OF THINGS THAT REALLY HAVE VERY LITTLE TO DO WITH SPACE EXPLORATION AT ALL, THAT WOULD HAVE BENEFITS ON EARTH, AND I WAS TALKING TO A GENTLEMAN JUST A FEW MONTHS AGO WHO OWNS AND OPERATES A COMPANY THAT IS DOING RESEARCH ON THE INTERNATIONAL STATION STATION. — SPACE STATION. THEY’RE USING ADULT STEM CELLS TO PRINT IN 3D HUMAN ORGANS THAT WILL BE USED ON EARTH. ALL OF THIS IS VERY EXPERIMENTAL, BUT THEY’RE HIGHLY CONFIDENT THAT THIS IS GOING TO BE A FAME CHANGER. YOU CAN DO THINGS IN A MICRO GRAVITY ENVIRPT, ZERO GRAVITY ENVIRPT, THAT YOU CAN’T DO HERE ON EARTH — ENVIRONMENT. SOME OF THESE ASTRONAUTS TO WORK ON THOSE, THAT’S WHAT WE’VE BEEN DOING FROM THE BEGINNING FROM ALL OF THE ACTIVITIES FROM FIRST SIGNS TO PLANETRY SCIENCE, ASTRO PHYSICS. IT HAS BEEN AMAZING. WE’RE GOING TO CLOSE HERE. THANK YOU FOR THAT WONDERFUL ANSWER. I JUST WANT TO GET A SHOW OF HANDS IF YOU’RE WILLING, RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU’RE INTERESTED IN GOING TO THE MOON OR MARS. LOOK AT THESE YOUNG FOLKS. WHAT ARE YOU WORRIED ABOUT? THEY’RE, LIKE, NO, I DON’T WANT TO TOUCH THAT, BUT IT IS COOL THEY’RE GOING. THAT’S OKAY. THEY NEED PEOPLE TO HELP THEM ON THE GROUND AS WELL. I SEE YOU RAIDS YOUR HAND ENTHUSIASTICALLY. YOU’RE READY TO GO. WE HAVE TO CLOSE OUT THIS SHOW. I WANT TO SAY THANK YOU FOR THE AUDIENCE, BOTH ON LINE AND ON NASA TV AND THE AUDIENCE THAT SHOWED UP HERE TODAY. THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING. I THINK THIS HAS BEEN A GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO GET TO KNOW SOME OF AMERICA’S PROUPDEST, SOME OF CANADA’S PROUDEST, SO WE CAN PREPARE FOR THE NEXT STEP, THE NEXT GENERATION OF WHAT THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA AND ALL OF OUR INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS ARE ABOUT TO DO IN SPACE. THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING, THANK YOU TO THE ASTRONAUT CANDIDATES. WE ARE GOING TO ANXIOUSLY ANTICIPATE LOOKING FORWARD TO YOU NOT JUST BEING ASTRONAUT CANDIDATES BUT NO KID KIDDING DOING YOUR MISSION AND WE WILL FOLLOW YOU ALL THE WAY. THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING. THANK YOU FOR WATCHING. WATCH THIS SPACE. I’M THE NASA ADMINISTRATOR JIM BRIDENSTINE AND WE WILL SEE YOU NEXT TIME. THANK YOU SO MUCH. [ APPLAUSE ] [ ♪♪♪ ]